Reading : McPheeters “5000 Year Timeline of Learning Theories” – Reflections

Just some thoughts…

Although I found this very interesting and relevant in terms of structuring an overview of Learning within history (with a variety of methods that are present today in relation to a variety of ways of teaching and learning that I also use within my own practice), one part that really distracted me from the whole narrative and also primary reflection is related to something the author says at the the opening of the video itself: “…the US spends more on Education than on Defense”. Really?

The video-piece is from 2011, so I have looked into statistics of different years, and I am struggling to find a year where education in the US was funded more than Defense between 2009 and 2016. Will need to research more here, but I am quite surprised by the opening argument that the author does. And, whilst the historical framework of Learning is indeed very interesting, I am going back into thinking about the Education Systems, about Politics affecting the future of Schools (from primary to secondary), Universities, etc. Not only the US,  but also expanding and taking the input from yesterday’s comments of Theresa May UK Universities, describing them as one of the most expensive university system in the world and how people should consider other ways of learning and growing professionally. I mean, I agree that there are different ways of learning outside of university, but I also think: how can Theresa May talk critically about UK Universities being one of the most expensive in the world, when it is actually her Conservative party with Cameron that put up the students’ fees of 3 times?” I am probably going out of topic in relation to the reading/viewing we had to do (or probably not, maybe I am straight to the point) but how can we talk about learning methods and educational approaches without considering the bigger contextual picture? In history, socioeconomic reasons have shaped the way of learning and teaching too; it is theoretically  important to connect the flow of learning methods and how successfull they might be in connection to how we learn differently, but also what the society wants from the “learning”. Is it individual learning, or is it a public open learning for all?

Then yes, as the video recalls, technology comes now to the table too, allowing a different level of engagement and interaction. But that is a new method…only a method, not a new philosophy for learning. The philosophy of learning has a bigger system to consider and/or to be considered upon.

…just some thoughts.



Inclusive – Task_01 – Gender

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Some primary thoughts with no editing as I want to keep them as first thoughts + some visual responses + some links. Hope it flows!

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Patriarchy is embedded in all societal flows – history has shaped that frame of understanding (even in certain cases subconsciously in contemporary days) and it is challenging to come to conclusions, reflections and thoughts that can overturn it. The socio-political elements of it, in all situations from family environment, to education, to sport, to work, are important to be reflected upon. I have a couple of students looking at the role of male power in graphic design and typography, so will be interesting to open cross-connection not only with gender but with the concept and dynamic that a patriarchal system brings to the table with its socio-political elements, as well as the socio-economic aspects of it, building up the history of the roles of men and women, the expectations given to men and women in a variety of forms, and the dynamic of change, and if change, what change…

Just a few days ago we were celebrating 100 years of women voting in the UK – on February 6th 1918 the Representation of the People Act came to force and women were by law first given the vote in UK. How has patriarchy changed by then? Rooted in historical kingdoms and violence, and powering injustice throughout the centuries. Reading Hooks’s Understanding Patriarchy paper, I find troubling and real the fact that still there is a visible sense of a political and social system that identifies males as dominant, powerful, somehow superior, in charge. I mean, even the current BBC (just as one of the various examples coming to light now..) issues with equal pay between men and women covering same roles of talent, experience, responsibilities.

And then how men (who aren’t patriarchal in their being) can challenge that idea of men. At points, as a man, I want to argue back, trying to bring up examples where this isn’t the case. I analyse further my surroundings and can see that things are changing within new generations (still a lot to change of course…), but I also see how that patriarchal dynamic is so very present in family life, in university, in politics, in religion, in economics. And in certain circumstances, even where patriarchal ingredients are far from present, somehow there are situations that at points recall it. I can reflect on countries where I lived such as Italy, Spain, France, Burkina Faso, the US and the UK. Patriarchal systems, within their different degrees, are actually present in various entities and national facets. And so, perhaps, national identity could also be an area to be analysed in its connection and roots of patriarchal needs…? I wonder what are the relationship with nationalism (from a soft to a more strong believe in it) and patriarchal/dominant flow in life for example. Just mind-mapping here…but this also makes me think further about the internationality of my course and group of students and how we can build-up a constructive discussion around it; but also a cross-exchange with tutors, looking at the roots of our academic disciplines too.

From this, to actually shape a more inclusive debate around this topic, I connect with inputs of Hooks’ paper within religion – I grew-up within a catholic system, went to catholic school (and studied post-school with nuns) until I was 10 years old, and lived in a surrounding flow of catholic structure. I think there are good things in the structure, and in certain values (although I am not catholic) but also we should think of: God as male…? As the father…? As the lord…? Why not immensity without gender? Patriarchy within religion and, as that cannot be detached from a social and cultural aspect of society, then reflects on the forming of diverse shapes of the societal framework, even within its grades of colours within/of patriarchy in relation to faith. And so, when researching or reading about religion and the arts (i.e. music, paitings, sculpture, etc), how can’t we reflect on patriarchal practice then, as it is very present and underlined in the messages that artistic creations are also proposing within their tones, layouts, compositions, colours, narratives.

And then, what role has that played, in consequence, within the political responses…? I think of Italy here, just as an example due to my origin for instance, and how we see constant men’s powers and approaches not only leading the country, but also shaping a cultural discourse that then, at points, translates into not putting ethics first, leaning at times into corruption, scandals, etc…a male chauvinism and sexism that fully reflects the patriarchal philosophy in all its negative aspects. OK…now it just came to my mind what just happened in London last month within a gala for charities and how MPs are calling for action and change now, but how unknown that was?

And then, these men are fathers, they are sons, they are husbands, creating psychological imprints of social injustice. A social injustice that then can be fought by men and women who can change it, limiting the patriarchal needs that often come from unseen dynamics, or familiarity…and then often accepted within a “role play”.

And so, roles to play…



Roles to play that then clash with different perspectives. And here, connecting to the documentary on Marsha P. Johnson, a patriarchal system would not accept differences on gender identity, or recognise the importance to value diversity. And so, within the role playing, I start reflecting that performance is then an artistic response to this “role playing” model and scenario of thinking, allowing factors of fashion, music, drama, comedy to come to the surface as arguments and tools for social change and impact. This comes also into graphic design, media art, digital hacks…as well as photography and other creative practices, and so the artistic community questions the boundaries that we are given. Here is something within the Arts Council that I was looking into last year:, as well as this one where I have also worked on with parallel workshops and discussions:, and then this project of a former student of mine, looking at queer identity in art and design, and playing with concepts of product design:

I want to see Grayson Perry’s UAL talk next Wed 14th Feb afternoon, part of the Changing Mindsets programme. If you can go, here is the registration form:

Within the arts we can push those boundaries more and more with artistic experimentation and cultural inclusion. But how can we expand outside to create a more open discussion within local communities for example? Personal change to internal institutional change to outreach development for opening new exchanges?


Inclusive Teaching Learning – D1

Critical Thinking / Encourage Questioning / Connecting with Others / Developing Inclusive Space / Culturally Aware / Work for Social Justice / Critical Pedagogy / Participatory Encounters / Critical Consciousness / Lived Realities / Cultural Change / Diversity / Empowerment / Impact / Discursive Activism / Intersectional Experiences / Sharing / Exchanging Thoughts / Equality within Diversity

Reading List : Vilhauer “Understanding Art: The Play of Work and Spectator” – Reflections

Some thoughts:

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Play as a way of interconnecting participants into an engaging dynamic.

Play as a movement that you cannot create by yourself.

Play as a mean to determine the goal.

Play as a mental state for surpassing obstacles.

Play as instinctive and rational.

Play as structure.

Play as role generating machine.

Play as an experience to show.

Play as an entity to see.

Play as participation.

Play as a process.

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Reading List : Munday “The classroom – a problem or a mystery?” – Reflections

Below is a sketch of thoughts:

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There it is…

…a space…

…a room…

…an area for problem solving.

A pro-active way of discussing between tutors and students, students and students, tutors and tutors. But is it so clear what the problem might be? Is it so clear what the project is going to say? And is it so clear what dynamics are we bringing into the space without even knowing – and how are those dynamics affecting the questions and answers in the first place?

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…reflecting from the back…

…leaving freedom to peer-perfomance…

…seeing dynamics that we usually do not see…

…analyzing those dynamics as a tool for learning and teaching.

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